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References for Beta-carotene

Clarkson, P.M., & Thompson H.S. (2000). Antioxidants: what role do they play in the physical activity and health?  American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 72, 637s-646s.

 

The effect of vitamin E and beta-carotene on the incidence of lung cancer and other cancers in male smokers.  The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group.  (1994).  New England Journal of Medicine, 330, 1029-1035.

 

Institute of Medicine, & Food and Nutrition Board.  (2000).  Beta-Carotene and other Carotinoids.  Dietary Reference Intakes for vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, and carotenoids.  (pp.325-328).  Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

 

Monsen, E.R.  (2000).  Dietary reference intakes for the antioxidant nutrients: vitamin C, vitamin E, and carotenoids.  Journal of American Dietetic Association 100, 637-640.

 

Omenn, G.S., Goodman, G.E., Thornquist, M.D., Balmes, J., Cullen, M.R., Glass, A., Keogh, J.P., Meyskens, Jr, F.L., Falanis, B., Williams, Jr., J.H., Barnhart, S., & Hammar, S.  (1996).  Effects of a combination of beta-carotene and vitamin A on lung cancer and cardiovascular disease.  New England Journal of Medicine 334, 1150-1155.

 

Palozza, P. (1998).  Prooxidant actions of carotenoids in biologic systems.  Nutrition Reviews, 56, 257-265.

 

Pryor, W.A., Stahl, W., Rock, C.L., (2000).  Beta-carotene: From biochemistry to clinical trials.  Nutrition Reviews, 1, 39-53.

 

Smigel, K. (1996).  Beta-carotene fails to prevent cancer in two major studies; CARET intervention stopped.  Journal of National Cancer Institute, 88  (3-4), 145.

 

References for Niacin

Bergstrom, J., Hultman, E., Jorfeldt, L., Pernow, B., & Wahnen, J. (1996).  Effect of nicotinic acid on physical working capacity and on metabolism of muscle glycogen in man.  Journal of Applied Physiology, 26, 170-176.

 

Carlson, L.A., Havel, R.J., Rkelund, L.G., & Holmgren, A. (1963).  Effect of nicotinic acid on the turnover rate and oxidation of the free fatty acids of plasma in man during exercise.  Metabolism, clinical and experimental, 12 (9), 837-845.

 

National Research Council (1989).  Recommended Dietary Allowances.  10th ed.  Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences.

 

References for Vitamin B-6

Institute of Medicine, & Food and Nutrition Board.  (1998). Vitamin B6.  Dietary Reference Intakes for thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, biotin, and choline.  (pp. 150-195).  Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

 

Yates, A.A., Schlicker, S.A., & Suitor, C.W.  (1998).  Dietary Reference Intakes: The new basis for recommendations for calcium and related nutrients, B vitamins and choline.  Journal of American Dietetic Association, 98,  699-706.

References for Vitamin C

Clarkson, P.M., & Thompson, H.S. (2000).  Antioxidants: what role do they play in physical activity and health?  American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 72, 637s-646s.

 

Evans, W.J.  (2000).  Vitamin E, vitamin C, and exercise.  American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 72, 647s-652s.

 

Alessio, H.M., Goldfarb, A.H., & Cao, G. (1997). Exercise-induced oxidative stress before and after vitamin C supplementation.  International Journal of Sports Nutrition, 7, 1-9.

 

Jacques, P.F., Taylor, A., Hankinson, S.E., Willett, W.C., Mahnken, B., Lee, Y., Vaid, K., & Lahav, M.  (1997).  Long-term vitamin C supplement use and prevalence of early age-related lens opacities.  American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 66, 911-916.

 

Institute of Medicine & Food and Nutrition Board.  (2000).  Vitamin C.  Dietary Reference Intakes fro vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, and carotenoids.  (pp95-185).  Washington, D.C: National Academy Press.

 

Monsen, E.R. (2000).  Dietary reference intakes for the antioxidant nutrients: vitamin C, vitamin E, and carotenoids.  Journal of American Dietetic Association, 100, 637-640.

 

Peters, E.D., Goetzsche, J.M., Brobbelaar, B., & Noakes, T.D.  (1993).  Vitamin C supplementation reduces the incidence of postrace symptoms of upper-respiratory-tract infection in ultramarathon runners.  American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 57, 170-174.

 

 

References for Vitamin E

Clarkson, P.M., Thompson, H.S.  (2000).  Antioxidants: what role do they play in physical activity and health?  American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 72, 637s-646s.

 

Evans, W.J.  (2000).  Vitamin E, vitamin C, and exercise.  American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 72, 647s-652s.

 

Itoh, H., Ohkuwa, T., Yamazaki, Y., Shimoda, T., Wakayama, A., Tamura, S., Yamamoto, T., Sato, Y., & Miyamura, M.  (2000).  Vitamin E supplementation attenuates leakage of enzymes following 6 successive days of running training.  International Journal of Sports Medicine, 21, 369-374.

 

Institute of Medicine, & Food and Nutrition Board.  (2000). Vitamin E.  Dietary Reference Intakes for vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, and carotenoids.  (pp. 186-283).  Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

 

Machlin, L.J. (1991).  Vitamin E.  In Machlin, L.J. (Ed.), Handbook of vitamins, 2nd ed.  (p. 127). New York

 

Monsen, E.R.  (2000).  Dietary reference intakes for the antioxidant nutrients: vitamin C, vitamin E, and carotenoids.  Journal of American Dietetic Association, 100, 637-640.

 

Packer, L.  (1991).  Protective role of vitamin E in biological systems.  American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 53, 1050S-1055S.

 

Sano, M., Ernesto, C., Thomas, R.G., Klauber, M.R., Schafer, K., Grundman, M., Woodbury, P., Growdon, J., Cotman, C.W., Pfeiffer, E., Schneider, L.S., & Thal, L.J.  (1997).  A controlled trial of selegiline, alpha-tocopherol, or both as treatment for Alzheimer’s disease.  New England Journal of Medicine, 336, 1216-1222.

 

Stephens, N.G., Parsons, A., Schofield, P.M., Kelly, F., Cheeseman, K., Mitchinson, M.J., & Brown, M.J.  (1996).   Randomized controlled trial of vitamin E in patients with coronary disease: Cambridge Heart Antioxidant Study (CHAOS). Lacet, 347, 781-786.

 

Swift, J.N., Kehrer, J.P., Seiler, S., & Starnes, J.W.  (1998).  Vitamin E concentration in rat skeletal muscle and liver after exercise.  International Journal of Sports Nutrition, 8, 105-112.

 

References for Calcium

Hathcock, J.N.  (1997).  Vitamin and mineral safety.  Washington: Council for Responsible Nutrition.

 

Haymes, E.M., & Clarkson, P.M.  (1998).  Minerals and trace minerals.  In J.R. Berning and S.N. Steen ( Eds), Nutrition for Sport and Exercise. 2nd ed.  (pp78-82).  Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen, Publications.

 

Yates, A.A., Schlicker, S.A., & Suitor, C.W.  (1998).  Dietary Reference Intakes: The new basis for recommendations for calcium and related nutrients, B vitamins and choline.  Journal of American Dietetic Association, 98, 699-706.

 

References for Chromium

Haymes, E.M., & Clarkson, P.M.  (1998).  Minerals and trace minerals.  In J.R. Berning & S.N. Steen (Eds), Nutrition for Sport and Exercise. 2nd ed.  (pp. 95-99).  Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen, Publications.

Hathcock, J.N.  (1997).  Vitamin and mineral safety.  Washington: Council for Responsible Nutrition.

 

Lukaski, H.C.  (1999).  Chromium as a supplement.  Annual Review of Nutrition, 19, 279-302.

 

Lukaski, H.C., Bolonchuk, W.W., Siders, W.A., & Milne, D.B.  (1996).  Chromium supplementation and resistance training effects on body composition, strength, and trace element status in men.  American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 63 (6), 954-965.

 

Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine.  Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc.  (in press).  Washington, D.C.

 

 


References for Iron

Lukaski, H.C., Hall, C.B., & Siders, W.A.  (1991).  Altered metabolic response of iron-deficient women during graded, maximal exercise.  European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 63 (2), 140-5.

 

Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine.  Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc.  (in press).  Washington, D.C.

 

Smith, J.  (1995) Exercise, training and red blood cell turnover.  Sports Medicine, 19, 9-31.

 

Taniguchi, M., Imahmura, H., Shirota, T., Okamatsu, H., Fujii, Y., Toba, M., & Hashimoto, F. (1991).  Imporvement in iron deficiency anemia through therapy with ferric ammonium citrate and vitamin C and the effects on aerobic exercise.  Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology, 37, 161-171.

 

Thompson, C.H., Kemp, G.J., Taylor, D.J., Radda, G.K., & Rajagopalan, B. (1993).  No evidence of mitochondrial abnormality in skeletal muscle of patients with iron-deficient anemia.  Journal of Internal Medicine, 234 (2), 149-154.

 

References for Zinc

Clarkson, P.M.  (2000).  Trace minerals.  In Maughan RJ.  (Ed).  Nutrition in Sport, (pp. 339-335).  Osney Mead, Oxford: Blackwell Science, Ltd.

 

Hathcock, J.N.  (1997).  Vitamin and Mineral Safety.  Washington: Council for Responsible Nutrition.

 

Hooper, P.L., Visconti, L., Garry, P.J., & Johnson, G.E.  (1980).  Zinc lowers high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels.  Journal of American Medical Association, 244, 1960-1961.

 

Myrvik, Q.N. (1994).  Immunology and Nutrition.  In M.E Shils, J.A. Olson & M. Shike (Eds.), Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease (8th ed.)  (pp.623-662).  Philadelphia, PA: Lea & Febiger.

 

Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine.  Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A,, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc.  (in press).  Washington, D.C.

 

Yadrick, M.K., Kenney, M.A., & Winterfeldt, E.A.  (1989).  Iron, copper, and zinc status: response to supplementation with zinc or zinc and iron in adult females.  American Journal Clinical Nutrition, 9, 145-150.

 

References for Creatine

Bennett, S.E., Bevington, A., & Walls, J. (2000).  Regulation of intracellular creatine in erythrocytes and myoblasts: influence of uraemia and inhibition of Na, K-ATPase.  Cell Biochemistry and Function, 12, 99-106.

 

Casey, A., & Greenhaff, P.L.  (2000).  Does dietary creatine supplementation play a role in skeletal muscle metabolism and performance?  American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 72, 607S-617S.

 

Graham, A.S., & Hatton, R.C.  (1999).  Creatine: a review of efficacy and safety.  Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association, 39, 803-10.

 

Greenhaff, P.L., Casey, A., Short, A.H., Harris, R., Soderlund, K., & Hultman, E.  (1993).  Influence of oral creatine supplementation of muscle torque during repeated bouts of maximal voluntary exercise in man.  Clinical Science, 84, 565-571.

 

Harris, R.C., Soderlund, K., & Hultman, E.  (1992).  Elevation of creatine in resting and exercised muscle of normal subjects by creatine supplementation.  Clinical Science, 83, 367-374.

 

Hultman, E., Soderlund, K., Timmons, J., Cederblad, G., & Greenhaff, P.L.  (1996).  Muscle creatine loading in man.  Journal of applied Physiology, 81, 232-237.

 

Mihic, S., MacDonald, J.R., McKenzie, S., & Tarnopolsky, M.A. (2000).  Acute creatine loading increases fat-free mass, but does not affect blood pressure, plasma creatinine, or CK activity in men and women.  Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32, 291-296.

 

Poortmans, J.R., & Francaux, M.  (1999).  Long-term oral creatine supplementation does not impair renal function in healthy athletes.  Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 31, 1108-1110.

 

Terjung, R.L, Clarkson, P., Eichner, E.R., Greenhaff, P.L., Hespel, P.J., Israel, R.G.,  Kraemer, W.J., Meyer, R.A., Spriet, L.L., Tarnopolsky, M.A., Wagenmakers, A.J., & Williams, M.H.  (2000).  American College of Sports Medicine roundtable.  The physiological and health effects of oral creatine supplementation.  Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32, 706-717.

 

Ziegenfuss, T.N., Lowery, L.M., & Lemon, P.W.R.  (1998).  Acute volume changes in men during three days of creatine supplementation.  Journal of Exercise Physiology Online, 1, (3), http://www.css.edu/users/tboone2/asep/fldr.htm

 

References for HMB

Clark, R.H., Feleke, G., Din, M., Yasmin, T., Singh, G., Khan, F.A., & Rathmacher, J.A.  (2000).  Nutritional treatment for acquired immunodeficiency virus-associated wasting using beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate, glutamine, and arginine: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.  Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, 24,  (3), 133-139.

 

Kreider, R.B., Ferreira, M., Wilson, M., & Almada, A.L.  (1999)  Effects of calcium beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation during resistance-training on markers of catabolism, body composition and strength.  International Journal of Sports Medicine, 20, 503-509.

 

Nissen, S., Faidley, T.D., Zimmerman, D.R., Izard, R., & Fisher, C.T.  (1994b).  Colostral milk fat percentage and pig performance are enhanced by feeding the leucine metabolite beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate on growth, mortality, and carcass qualities of broiler chickens.  Poultry Science, 73, 137-155.

Papet, I., Ostaszewski, P., Glomot, F., Obled, C., Faure, M., Bayle, G., Nissen, S., Arnal, M., & Grizard, J.  (1997).  The effect of a high dose of 3-hydroxy-3-methylbutyrate on protein metabolism in growing lambs.  British Journal of Nutrition, 77, 885-896.

 

Peterson, A.L., Qureshi, M.A., Ferket, P.R., & Fuller, J.C. Jr.  (1999).  Enhancement of cellular and humoral immunity in young broilers by the dietary supplementation of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate.  Immunopharmacology Immunotoxicology, 21, 307330.

 

Van Koevering, M.T., Dolezal, H.G., Gill, D.R., Owens, F.N., Strasia, C.A., Buchanan, D.S., Lake, R., & Nissen, S.  (1994).  Effects of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate on performance and carcass quality of feedlot steers.  Journal of Animal Science, 72, 1927-1935.

 

References for Medium Chain Triglycerides

Angus, D.J., Hargreaves, M., Dancey, J. & Febbraio, M.A.  (1998).  Effect of carbohydrate or carbohydrate plus medium chain triglyceride ingestion on cycling time trial performance.  Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise, [abstract], 30 (Suppl. 5), S83.

 

Auclair, E., Satabin, P., Servan, E. & Guezennec C.-Y. (1988).  Metabolic effects of glucose, medium chain triglyceride and long chain triglyceride feeding before prolonged exercise in rats.  European Journal of Applied Physiology, 57, 126-131.

 

Bennett, S.  (1964).  Intestinal absorptive capacity and site of absorption of fat under steady state conditions in unanesthetized rat.  Quarterly Journal of Experimental Physiology, 49, 210-217.

 

Berning, J.R.  (1996).  The role of medium-chain triglycerides in exercise.  International Journal of Sports Nutrition, 6, 121-133.

 

Clark, S.B. & Holt, P.R.  (1968).  Rate-limiting step in steady-state intestinal absorption of trioctanoin-1-14C.  Effect of biliary and pancreatic flow diversion.  Journal of Clinical Investigation, 47, 612-623.

 

Decombaz, J. & Roux, L.  (1980).  Glycogen utilization in exercise after increased fatty acids or ketone bodies.  International Journal of Vitamin and Nutrition Research, 50, 210-211.

 

Elmer-English, R., Goedecke, J.H., Schloss, I.C. & Noakes, T.D.  (1998).  Ingestion of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) with carbohydrate during steady-state exercise: effects on exercise metabolism and gastric symptoms.  Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, [abstract], 30  (Suppl. 5), S3.

 

Greenberger, N.J., Rodgers, J.B., & Isselbacher, K.J.  (1966).  Absorption of medium and long-chain triglycerides: Factors influencing their hydrolysis and transport.  Journal of Clinical Investigation, 45, 217-222.

 

Horowitz, J.F., Mora-Rodriguez, R. & Coyle, E.F.  (1995).  The effect of pre-exercise medium-chain triglyceride ingestion on muscle glycogen utilizationduring high intensity exercise.  Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, [abstract], 27 (Suppl. 5), S203.

 

Ivy, J.L., Costill, D.L., Fink, W.J., & Maglischo, E.  (1980).  Contribution of medium and long chain triglyceride intake to energy metabolism during prolonged exercise.  International Journal of Sports Medicine, 1, 15-20.

 

Jeukendrup, A.E., Saris, W.H.M., Schrauwen, P., Brouns, F. & Wagenmakers, A.J.M.  (1995).  Metabolic availability of medium chain triglycerides co-ingested with carbohydrates during prolonged exercise.  Journal of Applied Physiology, 79, 756-762.

 

Jeukendrup, A.E., Saris, W.H.M. Van Diesen, R., Brouns, F. & Wagenmakers, A.J.M.  (1994).  Exogenous MCT oxidation from carbohydrate-medium chain triglyceride supplements during moderate intensity exercise.  Clinical Science, [abstract], 87, 33.

Massicotte, D., Peronnet, F., Brisson, G.R., & Hillaire-Marcel, C.  (1992).  Oxidation of exogenous medium-chain free fatty acids during prolonged exercise-comparison with glucose.  Journal of Applied Physiology, 73, 1334-1339.

 

Satabin, P., Portero, P., Defer, G., Bricout, J. & Guezennec, C.-Y.  (1987).  Metabolic and hormonal responses to lipid and carbohydrate diets during exercise in man.  Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 19, 218-223.

 

Schwabe, A.D., Bennett, L.R., & Bowman, L.P.  (1964).  Octanoic acid absorption and oxidation in humans.  Journal of Applied Physiology, 19, 335-337.

 

Van Zyl, C.G., Lambert, E.V., Hawley, J.A., Noakes, T.D., & Dennis, S.C.  (1996).  Effects of medium-chain triglyceride ingestion on carbohydrate metabolism and cycling performance.  Journal of Applied Physiology, 80, 2217-2225.

 

Reference for Protein

Lemon, P.W.R. Effects of exercise on protein metabolism.  In: International Olympic Committee’s Encyclopaedia of Sports Medicine: Nutrition in Sports, RJ Maughan (ed), pp 145-157, Oxford: Blackwell Science, 2000.

 

Sugiura, K., Suzuki, I., & Kobayashi, K.  (1999).  Nutritional intake of elite Japanese track-and-field athletes.  International Journal of Sports Nutrition, 9, (2), 202-212.

 

References for Echinacea

Burger, R.A., Torres, A.R., Warren, R.P, Caldwell, V.D., & Hughes, B.G.  (1997).  Echinacea-induced cytokine production by human macrophages.  International Journal of Immunopharmacology, 19, 371-379.

 

Melchart, D., Linke, K., Worku, F., Sarkady, L., Holzmann, M., Juric, K., & Wagner, H. (1995).  Results of five randomized studies on the immunomodulatory activity of preparations of echinacea.  Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 1, 145-160.

 

Mullins, R.J.  (1998).  Echinacea-associated anaphylaxis.  Medical Journal of Australia, 168, 170-171.

 

 

 

 

Schardt, D.  (April, 1998).  Echinacea: Still out in the cold.  Nutrition Action Health letter, 8.

 

Robbers, J.E. & Tyler, V.E.  (1999).  Tyler’s Herbs of Choice: The Therapeutic use of Phytomedicinals.  2nd ed.  (pp. 253-257).  Binghamton, NY: The Haworth Herbal Press, Inc.

 

See, D.M., Broumand, N., Sahl, L., & Tilles, J.G.  (1997).  In vitro effects of echinacea and ginseng on natural killer and antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity in healthy subjects and chronic fatigue syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients.  Immunopharmacology, 35, 229-235. 

 

The Herb Research Foundation Webpage: http://www.herbs.org/greenpapers/echinacea.html.

 

 

References for Ephedra

Barron, R.L. & Vanscoy, G.J.  (1993).  Natural products and the athlete: Facts and folklore.  The Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 27, 607-615.

 

Gurley, B.J., Gardner, S.F., White, L.M., & Wang, P.L.  (1998).  Ephedrine pharmacokinetics after the ingestion of nutritional supplements containing Ephedra sinica.  The Drug Monitor, 20, 439-445.

 

Nadir, A., Agrawal, D., King, P.D., & Marshall, J.B.  (1996).  Acute hepatitis associated with the use of a Chinese herbal product, ma-huang.  American Journal of Gastroenterology, 91, 1436-1438.

 

Powell, T., Hsu, F.F., Turk, J., & Hruska, K.  (1998).  Ma-huang strikes again: ephedrine nephrolithiasis.  American Journal of Kidney Diseases, 32, 153-159.

 

Robbers, J.E., & Tyler, V.E.  (1999).  Tyler’s Herbs of Choice: The Therapeutic use of Phytomedicinals.  2nd ed.  (pp.112-116).  Binghamton, NY:  Haworth Herbal Press, Inc.

 

US Anti Doping Agency Webpage: http://www.usantidoping.org

 

White, L.M., Gardner, S.F., Gurley, B.J., Marx, M.A., Wang, P.L., & Estes, M.  (1997).  Pharmacokinetics and cardiovascular effects of ma-huang (Ephedra sinica) in normotensive adults.  Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 37, 116-122.

 

 

References for Garlic

Adler, A.J., & Holub, B.J. (1997).  Effect of garlic and fish-oil supplementation on serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in hypercholesterolemic men.  American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 65, 445-450.

 

Berthold, H.K., Sudhop, T., Von Bergmann, K.  (1998).  Effect of garlic oil preparation on serum lipoproteins and cholesterol metabolism.  Journal of American Medical Association, 270, 1900-1902.

 

Breithaupt-Grogler, K., Ling, M., Boundoulas, H., & Belz, G.G.  (1997).  Protective effect of chronic garlic intake on elastic properties of aorta in the elderly.  Circulation, 96, 2649-2655.

 

Isaacsohn, J.L., Moser, M., Stein, E.V., Dudley, K., Davey, J.A., Liskov, E., Black, H.R.  (1998).  Garlic powder and plasma lipids and lipoproteins.  Archives of Internal Medicine, 158, 1189-1194.

 

Koscielny, J., Klussendorf, D., Latza, R., Schmitt, R., Radtke, H., Seigel, G., & Kiesewetter, H.  (1999).  The antiatherosclerotic effect of allium satavieum.  Atherosclerosis, 144 (1), 237-249.

 

Robbers, J.E. & Tyler, V.E.  (1999).  Tyler’s Herbs of Choice: The Therapeutic use of Phytomedicinals.  2nd ed.  (pp. 132-137).  Binghamton, NY: Haworth Herbal Press, Inc.

 

Zheng, S., Yang, H., Zhang, S., Wang, X., Yu, L., Lu, J., & Li, J.  (1998).  Initial study on naturally occurring products from traditional Chinese herbs and vegetables for chemoprevention.  Journal of Cellular Biochemistry Supplement, 27, 106-112.

 

References for Ginseng

Bahrke, M. & Morgan, W.  (1994).  Evaluation of the ergogenic properties of ginseng.  Sports Medicine, 18 (4), 229-248.

 

Foster, S., & Tyler, V.E.  (1999).  Tyler’s Honest Herbal: A Sensible Guide to the Use of Herbs and Related Remedies.  4th Ed.  (pp. 187-194).  Binghamton, NY: Haworth Herbal Press, Inc.

 

Morris, A., Jacobs, I., McLellan, T., Klugerman, A., Wang, L., & Zamecnik, J.  (1996).  No ergogenic effect of ginseng ingestion.  International Journal of Sports Nutrition, 6, 263-271.

 

Pieralisi, G., Ripari, P., & Vecchiet, L.  (1991).  Effects of a standardized ginseng extract combined with dimethylaminoethanol bitartrate, vitamins, minerals, and trace elements on physical performance during exercise.  Clinical Therapeutics, 13 (3), 373-382.

 

References for Sarsaparilla

Robbers, J.E. & Tyler, V.E.  (1999).  Tyler’s Herbs of Choice: The Therapeutic use of Phytomedicinals.  2nd ed.  (pp.241-242).  Binghamton, NY: Haworth Herbal Press, Inc.

 

 

 


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